I am not a linguist… just someone who is curious about the source of food names. On the subject of Philippine dishes, I note that the letters “in” are inserted into a verb to signify the action of said verb on a certain ingredient to make a dish.
Take for example, sinigang. The verb is sigang, and sinigang denotes that something was sigang-ed, as in sinigang na baboy (pork sinigang).
Pinirito, from prito (fry), indicates that something was prito-ed, as in piniritong manok (fried chicken).
Kinilaw, from kilaw (marinate in citrus), indicates that something was kilaw-ed, as in kinilaw na isda.
Sinaing, from saing (boiled), indicates that something was saing-ed, as in sinaing na tuligan (steamed tuna).
Back to sinigang: I haven’t found the exact meaning of the verb sigang, but the term sinigang is defined as a Philippine soup or stew marked by a sour flavor.
An examination of the cuisine of Indonesia has revealed those peoples’ penchant for soups prepared with souring agents — also used in the Philippines — including sampalok (tamarind), bayabas (guavas), kamias (bilimbi, cucumber tree), among others.
An Indonesian blogger writes about the source of their sinigang:
The origin of this Indonesian vegetable tamarind soup
known as sayur asam can be traced to Sundanese people
of West Java, Banten and Jakarta region.
Modern private supermarkets, and even vegetable vendors in public open-air markets, have made it easier for us to make sinigang. They have packaged the multiple ingredients required to compose the dish; and when the souring agent is missing, one can drop a little cube of flavor concentrate to get the sour broth going.
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